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Hello.  I am Scott Allen and you can reach me by phone from at 606-666-7511 from 9:00 until 9:50 or you can email me at scott.allen@breathitt.kyschools.us

Wednesday, January 3, 2018 

 

For your bell-work, summarize the best part of your Christmas Break, or summarize the worst part of your Christmas Break, or summarize anything that happened over Christmas Break. 

Answer attendance with any noun.  The expectation is that we speak Standard English.  Speak the language of success. 

Agenda 

Bell-Work, Written Vocabulary Exercise, Oral Vocabulary Exercise, Review, Cold Call, Dismissal.   

Exercise One, 2018 

I can determine the meaning of words and phrases.  This is an important skill for my future because . . .    

Copy the following sentences.  Put the correct word in the blanks.  Some words may be used more than once.     

  1. The word _________ can be a verb that means occurring in turns. 

  1. The word _________ can be a noun that means a person who takes the place of another.   

  1. The word ________ can be a noun that means the separation of a whole into its components or its parts, or an examination of a whole to discover its elements and their relationships, or a statement of such ________.   

  1. The word _________ can be a noun that means a general agreement of accord.   

  1. The word _________ can be a verb that means to indicate by lines drawn in the form or figure of; to portray, sketch, or represent accurately.   

  1. The word _______ can be an adjective that means differing from one another, or having various qualities.   

  1. The word ________ can be a verb that means to determine or fix a value on something, or to examine and judge the degree of something.   

  1. The word __________ can be an adjective that means embodying a fallacy or an untruth.   

  1. Delusive.  ____________. 

  1. The word _______ can be a noun that means a false or mistaken idea, or false or illogical reasoning or an instance of such reasoning.   

  1. The word ____________ can be an adverb that means to try to win someone over to a belief or a course of action by earnest requests; to try to induce to do or believe something.   

  1. The word __________ can be a noun that means the quality used when trying to win someone over to a belief or a course of action.   

  1. The word ______________ can be an adverb that means to try to describe in terms relating to and expressible in terms of, or involving the measurement of quantity.   

  1. The word ________ can be a noun that means how much or how large.   

  1. The word _______ may be defined as a set of patterns concerning the way words are put together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences, whether spoken or in writing.   

Grammar-Alternate-Quantity-Analysis-Quantitatively-Concensus-Persuasion-Delineate-Persuasively-Diverse-Fallacy-Evaluate-Delusive-Fallacious  

Wednesday, January 3, 2018

 

For your bell-work, summarize the best part of your Christmas Break, or summarize the worst part of your Christmas Break, or summarize anything that happened over Christmas Break.

Answer attendance with any noun.  The expectation is that we speak Standard English.  Speak the language of success.

Agenda

Bell-Work, Written Vocabulary Exercise, Oral Vocabulary Exercise, Review, Cold Call, Dismissal. 

Exercise One, 2018

I can determine the meaning of words and phrases.  This is an important skill for my future because . . .   

Copy the following sentences.  Put the correct word in the blanks.  Some words may be used more than once.   

  1. The word _________ can be a verb that means occurring in turns.
  2. The word _________ can be a noun that means a person who takes the place of another. 
  3. The word ________ can be a noun that means the separation of a whole into its components or its parts, or an examination of a whole to discover its elements and their relationships, or a statement of such ________. 
  4. The word _________ can be a noun that means a general agreement of accord. 
  5. The word _________ can be a verb that means to indicate by lines drawn in the form or figure of; to portray, sketch, or represent accurately. 
  6. The word _______ can be an adjective that means differing from one another, or having various qualities. 
  7. The word ________ can be a verb that means to determine or fix a value on something, or to examine and judge the degree of something. 
  8. The word __________ can be an adjective that means embodying a fallacy or an untruth. 
  9. Delusive.  ____________.
  10. The word _______ can be a noun that means a false or mistaken idea, or false or illogical reasoning or an instance of such reasoning. 
  11. The word ____________ can be an adverb that means to try to win someone over to a belief or a course of action by earnest requests; to try to induce to do or believe something. 
  12. The word __________ can be a noun that means the quality used when trying to win someone win someone over to a belief or a course of action. 
  13. The word ______________ can be an adverb that means to try to describe in terms relating to and expressible in terms of, or involving the measurement of quantity. 
  14. The word ________ can be a noun that means how much or how large. 
  15. The word _______ may be defined as a set of patterns concerning the way words are put together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences, whether spoken or in writing. 

Grammar-Alternate-Quantity-Analysis-Quantitatively-Concensus-Persuasion-Delineate-Persuasively-Diverse-Fallacy-Evaluate-Delusive-Fallacious  

 

I can determine the meaning of words and phrases.  Focus on speaking and listening.  Who will read?   

 

Seafarer

Classic

Classical

Architecture

Iron Age

Smelting

Nobility

Prosperous

Foremost

Philosophy

Literary

 

 

 

The word __________ is a noun that can mean the pursuit of wisdom.  

Nobility

Prosperous

Foremost

Philosophy

 

The word ________ is an adjective that means having to do with reading and learning.

Prosperous

Foremost

Philosophy

Literary

 

 

The word _________ can be an adjective that means serving as a standard for excellence.  

Seafarer

Classic

Classical

Architecture

 

 

__________ can be an adjective that means of or relating to Ancient Greece, Rome, or the period from 3100 BCE to 500 CE.

Seafarer

Classic

Classical

Architecture

 

____________ is an adjective that can mean marked by success and economic well-being. 

Smelting

Nobility

Prosperous

Foremost

 

___________ can be a noun that means first in a progression or series. 

Smelting

Nobility

Prosperous

Foremost

 

____________ is a noun that means a mariner or someone who works on the sea. 

Seafarer

Classic

Classical

Architecture

 

___________ is a noun that means the art or science of building structures (homes and buildings).

Seafarer

Classic

Classical

Architecture

 

The ______ _______ is a noun that may refer to the period of human culture characterized by the smelting of iron and its use in industry beginning somewhat before 1000 BCE in western Asia and Egypt.

Iron Age

Smelting Age

Nobility Age

Prosperous Age

 

 

____________ can be a verb that means to melt or fuse. 

Iron Age

Smelting

Nobility

Prosperous

You Are Here

Subjective Historical and Artistic Periods

 

Some scholars date the beginning of Western Civilization from 3100 BCE to 500 CE, or 3100 BC to 500 AD.*  This period includes the Trojan War, Homer popularizing the story of that war with is epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey.

 

 

Greek children learned about religion, public speaking, storytelling, morals, hospitality, and more by studying these epics.  The literature of Ancient Greece was mirrored in the art.  Artistic figures that were probably copied from Ancient Egypt went from being one dimensional to two and three dimensional, with the figures appearing far more realistic and human than the images in Egypt. 

 

 

Later, Socrates, one of the first major philosophers, often alluded to the epics in discussions and questions about knowledge.  Plato, one of Socrates students, wrote about Socrates in his dialogues.  Socrates, in contrast, wrote nothing.  Greece often gets credit for the development of democracy, poetry, drama, philosophy, and so much more.  Rome conquered Greece, and enslaved many of the Greeks.  The Romans adopted and renamed the Greeks’ gods.  The Roman Empire grew, evolved, decayed, and then fell in 476 CE.  

 

*BCE stands for before Common Era, and CE stands for Common Era.  A growing number of people have adopted these terms to replace BC and AD (commonly referred to as Before Christ and After Death) as the world becomes more of a connected community with a need to communicate across religious lines.  In other words, Christianity is one religion among several, and the evolving notions in discourse encourage respecting all beliefs.    

 

500 to 1400 CE can be referred to as The Dark Ages, or Medieval Times.  Following the fall of Rome in 476 CE, large cities and civilizations evolved into manor farms.  Nobles and Lords ruled the manors, which were large land holdings worked by the poor who lived there, serving the rich nobles. 

 

 

1400 to 1600 CE can be considered the Renaissance.  The word renaissance means rebirth, for this time is considered to be the rebirth of the ideas from classical Greece and Rome, where democracy, poetry, drama, philosophy, and so much more began.  The art and literature also mirrored that of classical antiquity.  Important Renaissance Masters include Raphael, Donatello, Da Vinci, and Michelangelo.  

 

1580 to 1750 CE are referred to as the Baroque era.  During this time, the realistic figures produced in the Renaissance developed a more dramatic, dynamic, and emotional aesthetic.  Michelangelo, one of the Renaissance Masters, had a long life and a career that continued from the Renaissance into the Baroque era.  Rembrandt is an important artist from this period.  (Mannerism)     

 

 

Some literature refers to the time between 1720 and 1830 as the Neoclassical Period.  Neo means new, so the Neoclassical Period was again a return to the ideas of Classical Antiquity.  One of the most important artists of the Neoclassical Period is named Jacque Louis David.  He painted a bevy of masterpieces, including "The Death of Socrates."  The American Revolution, the French Revolution, the War of 1812, and the Enlightenment also occurred during the Neoclassical Period.    

 

 

Impressionism and Postimpressionism appeared from 1800 to 1900. During this period, many artists concerned themselves with painting not the image they observed, but the impression the image gave them.  Pissarro was like a father figure several artists who are considered to be artists of Impressionism and Postimpressionism. 

 

 

Some label the span of time from 1820 to 1900 as Romanticism.  Art and literature of this time focused on feeling, subjectivity, the individual, and faith in nature.  Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein in the early 19th century, and the book was first published in 1818, becoming an important Romantic novel, as well as perhaps the first science-fiction novel.  "The Wanderer Above a Sea of Fog" is a popular painting from the Romantic Period. 

The American Civil War fits into the times of Romanticism, Impressionism, and Postimpressionism. 

 

 

1890 to 1960 can be referred to as the Modern Era.  World War I, World War II, and the Korean War all fit into the Modern Era.  Music and film began to eclipse painting, sculpture, and even theatre during this period. Technology allowed the spread of these mediums easily. 

 

1960 until this present moment (October 25, 2017) may be called Postmodern. 

The British Invasion which brought the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, Motown, and much more are part of postmodernism.  

Literary Terms

 

Alliteration is the repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together in a poem. 

 

Open her I flung the shutter, when with

     Many a flirt and flutter,

In there stepped a stately Raven of the saintly

    Days of yore. 

Edgar Allen Poe from “The Raven.”

 

Allegory is a short story of poem that has more meaning than is apparent.  For example, Aesop’s fable about the tortoise and the hare is about more than the animals’ race.  The audience should understand the importance of persistence.  Homer reflects this theme in The Odyssey, explaining, “Evil deeds do not prosper; the slow catch up with the swift.” 

 

Allusion is a reference to a statement, a person, or an event from literature, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or pop culture. 

 

Dickens writes of “The wicked Noah’s Ark,” making an allusion to Noah from the Bible. 

 

Apostrophe is when the speaker speaks to something not there, or not human, on inanimate, like a statue, as though the entity could respond.  This lets the audience glimpse the speaker’s imagination. 

 

Assonance is a repetition of vowel sounds in language and poetry. 

 

The light of the fire is a sight. 

 

Consonance means the repetition of certain sounds, usually consonants for poetic effect. 

 

Blank and think, spell and scald . . .

 

Dialect is a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people. 

 

Diction is a writer’s or a speaker’s choice of words.  Diction is an essential element of a writer’s style.  (Simple to ornate to everything in between)

 

An epic is a long story told in elevated language, which relates the great deeds of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society.  Most epics include elements of myth, legend, folk tale, and history.  Epics cover most of the known world, a possible visit to the underworld, and the supernatural. 

 

An epithet is an adjective or descriptive phrase that is regularly used to characterize a person, place, thing, or an idea.  (Honest Abe, the Dark Knight, the Man of Steal, rosy-fingered dawn, the wine dark sea, the gray-eyed goddess Athena are examples of epithets) 

 

Hyperbole is a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion of to create comic effect.  Writers often use hyperbole, called overstatement, to intensify a description or to emphasize the essential nature of something.  If you way that a limousine is as long as an ocean liner, you are using hyperbole. 

 

Imagery is language that appeals to the senses.  Imagery is often visual, as when a writer creates pictures in our mind.  Imagery can also appeal to sound, touch, taste, smell, or even to several senses at once. 

 

Irony is a contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality. 

 

In verbal irony, a writer or speaker says one thing but means something completely different. 

 

If you refer to a clumsy basketball player as the next Michael Jordan, you are using verbal irony. 

 

A metaphor is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, in which one thing becomes another thing without the use of the word like, as, than, or resembles. 

 

Onomatopoeia is the use of a word whose sound imitates or suggests its meaning.  Onomatopoeia is so natural to us that we begin using it instinctively as children.  Crackle, pop, fizz, click, zoom, and chirp are examples of onomatopoeia.  

 

A paradox is a statement or situation that seems to be a contradiction but reveals a truth.  Paradoxes in literature are designed to make readers stop and think.  When O. Henry, in “The Gift of the Magi,” refers to the impoverished Della and Jim as “one of the richest couples on earth,” he is stating a paradox. 

 

Personification is a kind of metaphor in which a nonhuman thing or quality is talked about as if it were human. 

 

Satire is a type of writing that ridicules something in order to reveal a weakness.  Satire may ridicule a person, a group of people, humanity at large, an attitude of failing, or a social institution. 

 

Simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, resembles, or than. 

 

A symbol is a person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and for something beyond itself as well.  Odysseus’ bow is a bow, and the bow is a symbol for Odysseus.  Odysseus is the wily peer to the gods, and he alone can string the bow, because he is the hero of The Odyssey.    

 

The theme is the central idea of a work of literature.  A theme is not the same as the subject.  The theme is the idea the writer wishes to reveal about the subject.   

_____________ is the repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together in a poem. 

 

Open her I flung the shutter, when with

     Many a flirt and flutter,

In there stepped a stately Raven of the saintly

    Days of yore. 

Edgar Allen Poe from “The Raven.”

 

____________ is a short story of poem that has more meaning than is apparent. 

 

For example, Aesop’s fable about the tortoise and the hare is about more than the animals’ race.  The audience should understand the importance of persistence.  The fable is an ______________.    

 

Homer reflects this theme in The Odyssey, explaining, “Evil deeds do not prosper; the slow catch up with the swift.” 

 

______________ is a reference to a statement, a person, or an event from literature, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or pop culture. 

 

Dickens writes of “The wicked Noah’s Ark,” making an ____________ to Noah from the Bible. 

 

___________ is when the speaker speaks to something not there, or not human, on inanimate, like a statue, as though the entity could respond.  The use of __________ lets the audience glimpse the speaker’s imagination.  (Speaking to statue or something not human)    

 

______________ is a repetition of vowel sounds in language and poetry. 

 

The light of the fire is a sight is an example of ___________. 

 

______________ means the repetition of certain sounds, usually consonants for poetic effect. 

 

Blank and think, spell and scald . . .

 

________________ is a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people. 

 

____________ is a writer’s or a speaker’s choice of words. 

 

_______________ is an essential element of a writer’s style.  (Simple to ornate to everything in between)

 

An ________ is a long story told in elevated language, which relates the great deeds of a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular society. 

 

Most __________ include elements of myth, legend, folk tale, and history. 

 

_________ cover most of the known world, a possible visit to the underworld, and the supernatural. 

 

An ___________ is an adjective or descriptive phrase that is regularly used to characterize a person, place, thing, or an idea.  (Honest Abe, the Dark Knight, the Man of Steal, rosy-fingered dawn, the wine dark sea, the gray-eyed goddess Athena are examples of __________) 

 

__________ is a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion of to create comic effect. 

 

Writers often use ______________, called overstatement, to intensify a description or to emphasize the essential nature of something. 

 

If you way that a limousine is as long as an ocean liner, you are using __________. 

 

_____________ is language that appeals to the senses. 

 

___________ is often visual, as when a writer creates pictures in our mind. 

 

__________ can also appeal to sound, touch, taste, smell, or even to several senses at once. 

 

___________ is a contrast or discrepancy between expectation and reality. 

 

In ________ __________, a writer or speaker says one thing but means something completely different. 

If you refer to a clumsy basketball player as the next Michael Jordan, you are using ________ __________. 

 

A _____________ is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, in which one thing becomes another thing without the use of the word like, as, than, or resembles. 

_____________ is the use of a word whose sound imitates or suggests its meaning. 

 

_____________ is so natural to us that we begin using it instinctively as children. 

 

Crackle, pop, fizz, click, zoom, and chirp are examples of _____________.  

 

A __________ is a statement or situation that seems to be a contradiction but reveals a truth. 

 

__________ in literature are designed to make readers stop and think.  When O. Henry, in “The Gift of the Magi,” refers to the impoverished Della and Jim as “one of the richest couples on earth,” he is stating a __________. 

 

_____________ is a kind of metaphor in which a nonhuman thing or quality is talked about as if it were human. 

 

____________ is a type of writing that ridicules something in order to reveal a weakness. 

 

__________ may ridicule a person, a group of people, humanity at large, an attitude of failing, or a social institution. 

 

_________- is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, resembles, or than. 

 

A __________ is a person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and for something beyond itself as well. 

 

Odysseus’ bow is a bow, and the bow is a _________ for Odysseus. 

 

__________ is the wily peer to the gods, and he alone can string the bow, because he is the hero of The Odyssey.    

 

The __________ is the central idea of a work of literature.  A _________ is not the same as the subject. 

 

The ___________ is the idea the writer wishes to reveal about the subject.   

 

Review and Additional Terms      

 

The word abstract can be an adjective that means difficult to understand or expressing a quality apart from the object.  Love, hate, dread, kindness are examples of abstract ideas.   

 

An abstract noun is a noun denoting something immaterial and abstract, like rest, dread, kindness, love, anger, peace, loyalty, integrity, pride, courage, deceit, honesty, trust, compassion, and much more.

 

An accent is a noun that refers to a distinctive mode of pronunciation of language, especially one associated with a particular nation, locality, or social class. 

 

Alliteration is a noun that means a repetition of the same of very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together.  (Steve wore his seer sucker suit that he bought on sale for the second week of school.) 

 

The word allegory is a noun that refers to a story that expresses truths or generalizations about human existence.  For example, the allegory of “The Tortoise and the Hare” is slow and steady wins the race. 

 

An allusion is a noun that makes a reference to a statement, a person, a place or an event from history, literature, religion, politics, sports, science, or pop culture.  Allusions can tie literature to real life.  

 

The most emotional moment of the story is the climax, when the outcome of the conflict is finally revealed.

 

A character is a person in a story, poem, or play.  Characters may also be animals, Brave Little Toasters, and more.

 

The process of revealing the personality of a character is called characterization.

 

Character traits are all the aspects of a person’s behavior and attitudes that make up a person’s personality.  Some examples of character traits include active, bossy, compassionate, competitive, cruel, dependable, and eager.    

 

To cite text means to give supporting evidence from the text. 

 

A concrete noun may be defined as a noun denoting something material and non-abstract, as a chair, house, or car, and much more.

 

A conflict is a struggle against some outside enemy or some internal problem.  Examples of conflicts include character versus character, character versus society, character versus nature, or an idea against an idea (Vengeance versus Forgiveness).  If a character is struggling with some inner problem, such as fear, anger or homesickness, the character is contending with an internal conflict.  If a character is struggling against something outside himself or herself, like in “The Sniper,” he or she has an external conflict

  

Connotation is an abstract noun that means all of the meanings, associations, and emotions that a word suggests.  For example, skinny and slender both mean thin.  However, skinny and slender have different connotations.  Skinny might be considered an insult.  Slender is usually a compliment.  

 

The word dialect is a noun the means a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people. 

 

When a writer uses direct characterization the author tells us directly what the character is like. 

 

Dramatic irony occurs when the audience knows something important the character or characters do not. 

 

A dynamic character is a character that changes as the result of the story’s events. 

 

Figurative language or figures of speech are words or phrases that describe one thing in terms of another and are not meant to be understood on a literal level. 

 

A first-person narrator is a character in the story.

 

A flat character has only one or two character traits, and these can be described in a few words.  (In drama and literature, Nazis are usually flat characters.  Demons and the Devil are flat characters.  )

 

A folk tale is any story passed down by ordinary people through the oral tradition.

 

The word grammar is a noun that may be defined as a set of patterns concerning the way words and are put together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences, whether spoken or in writing. 

 

The word foreshadowing can be a verb or a noun that means the author uses clues to hint at events that will occur later in the story.

 

The word hyperbole is a noun that refers to a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion or to create comic effect.  “The limousine was as long as an ocean liner.” 

 

When a writer uses indirect characterization, we have to use our own judgment to decide what a character is like based on evidence the writer gives us.  Some methods of indirect characterization could include the author describing how the character dresses, speaks, behaves, and appears.       

 

An ironic situation is a situation that turns out to be the opposite of what we expected.

 

The word literal is an adjective that means taking words at the usual and most basic sense without using simile, metaphor, or any kind of figurative meaning. 

 

The word metaphor is a noun that refers to a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, in which one thing becomes another thing without the use of the word, like, as, than, or resembles.  “My father is a work horse.” 

 

To narrate is a verb that means to give a written or spoken account. 

 

The narrator is the voice telling the story. 

 

The word objective can be an adjective that means having a reality independent of the mind.  Facts are objective.  Opinions are subjective.  “Numbers behave.  Words do not.”  The word objective can be an adjective that means not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased. 

 

An oxymoron is a noun that refers to a figure of speech in which two opposite ideas are joined to create an effect.  (cruel kindness, living death) 

 

A paradox is a statement of situation that seems to be a contradiction but reveals a truth.  (The more a man learns, the more he realizes how little he knows.” Anonymous)

 

The word personification is a noun that refers to a kind of metaphor in which nonhuman things are talked about as if they were human.

 

A story’s plot is a series of related events, like a chain.  Exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and the resolution make up the plot.  The exposition reveals the characters and setting. A particular conflict is introduced in the rising action.  The conflict is resolved in the climax, the most emotional moment of the story.  Falling action follows the conflict, where the audience may learn more details about the conflict and the way it worked out.  .  Finally, the story ends with the resolution, which may be happily ever after or heartbreaking or somewhere in between.          

 

Point of View is the vantage point from which a story is told. 

 

A round character is a character that has many different character traits that sometimes contradict each other, like a real person. 

 

A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought.  A simple sentence has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.  A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses but no subordinate clauses.  A complex sentence has one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.  A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.

 

A story’s setting tells when and where the story takes place.

 

A simile is a noun that refers to a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, or than.  “I love you like Kanye loves Kanye.” 

 

Situational irony occurs when there is a contrast between what would seem appropriate and what really happens.  (Regan’s limo, “The Sniper,” and “The Interlopers,” are examples of situational irony.) 

 

Standard English is a noun that refers to the English that is well established by usage in the formal and informal speech and writing of the educated and that is widely recognized and acceptable wherever English is spoken.   

 

A static character is a character that does not change much in a story.

 

The word subjective can be an adjective that means existing in the mind; belonging to the thinking subject rather than the object of thought.  (Opposed to the subjective)

 

A surprise ending resolves story’s climax in an unexpected-yet logical-way.

  

The word suspense is a noun that refers to the uncertainty we feel about what is going to happen next in a story.  Suspense is the feeling that keeps us on the edge of our seat.  

 

A story’s theme is often revealed by what a character has discovered as a result of the action.  The theme is also the central idea of a work of literature.

 

A story’s title often gives clues to the story’s theme. 

 

A third-person limited point of view focuses on the thoughts and feelings of a single character in the story.   

 

An unreliable narrator is someone who is not always perceptive about what is going on in a story, or someone who is deliberately not telling the truth. 

 

When using verbal irony, the speaker says one thing but really means something completely different. 

 

Parts of Speech

 

An __________ is a word that modifies or describes a noun or a pronoun. (smart students, nice school)

 

An __________ is a word that modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

 

A __________ is a word that joins words, phrases, or clauses.  (and, but, or, while, because)

 

A ____________ is a word that is placed before a noun or a pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in a sentence.  (He likes sugar on cereal.)

 

An ____________ is a word that is used to express emotion.  (Oh!  Wow!  Oops!)

 

A __________ is a word or words that represent a person, place, thing, or an idea.

 

A ___________ is a word used in place of a noun.  (she, we, they, it, you . . .)

 

A _________ is a word that expresses action or a state of being.  (He jumped.  Pride is an abstract noun.)

 

THE END of Final Review.  The notes are repeated below.  

 

Know FANBOYS

 

 

Literary Terms

 

Alliteration is the repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together in a poem. 

 

Open her I flung the shutter, when with

     Many a flirt and flutter,

In there stepped a stately Raven of the saintly

    Days of yore. 

Edgar Allen Poe from “The Raven.”

 

Allegory is a short story of poem that has more meaning than is apparent.  For example, Aesop’s fable about the tortoise and the hare is about more than the animals’ race.  The audience should understand the importance of persistence.  Homer reflects this theme in The Odyssey, explaining, “Evil deeds do not prosper; the slow catch up with the swift.” 

 

Allusion is a reference to a statement, a person, or an event from literature, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, science, or pop culture. 

 

Dickens writes of “The wicked Noah’s Ark,” making an allusion to Noah from the Bible. 

 

Apostrophe is when the speaker speaks to something not there, or not human, on inanimate, like a statue, as though the entity could respond.  This lets the audience glimpse the speaker’s imagination. 

 

Assonance is a repetition of vowel sounds in language and poetry. 

 

The light of the fire is a sight. 

 

Consonance means the repetition of certain sounds, usually consonants for poetic effect. 

 

Blank and think, spell and scald . . .

 

Dialect is a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or a particular group of people. 

 

Diction is a writer’s or a speaker’s c